At the southern tip of Kamchatka Peninsula, within the Southern Kamchatka Wildlife Refuge in Russia, lies Kurile Lake in a large caldera that was formed about 8,000 years ago in an enormous volcanic explosion which shook the entire peninsula. A huge amount of material was ejected during the explosion that produced thick pyroclastic flow deposits around the countryside, and rained ash five centimeters thick even a thousand kilometers away from the source. By the volume of pyroclastic materials blown into the atmosphere, scientists estimate that this eruption was seven or eight times more violent than the 1883 Krakatoa eruption in Indonesia and, most likely, resulted in serious climatic impacts on the planet. The volcano removed about 140–170 cubic kilometers of materials, and lava flows reached both the Pacific and Okhotsk Sea coasts of the peninsula.
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